15 Things We Should Be Celebrating on National Aboriginal Day

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Before getting into this, I think it’s important to mention that I am writing this list with an Indigenous audience in mind. Today is our day and in that spirit I am writing this list for our people. If you’re not Indigenous and you’re reading this, I think it’s important to remember that while this list may make you feel good about the current state of Indigenous people in Canada, it by no means signifies that everything is alright. This list is written from an Indigenous perspective to an Indigenous audience, keep that in mind.

June 21st is National Aboriginal Day here in Canada. While I am not a huge fan of the name and genuinely think everyday is a good day to be Indigenous, I still see the merit in having a day to ourselves to celebrate and acknowledge our existence, our contributions to the world and our resiliency. Due to colonization our lives are often clouded with negativity, but today let’s break through that to celebrate ourselves and all that we’ve accomplished. Starting with the fact that……

1. We’re Still Here

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Colonizers have been trying to get rid of us since the day they arrived. They failed! We’re still here, we’re strong and…

2. We Continue to Fight

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Our warrior spirit has never vanished, we’ll continue fighting our colonial occupation and oppression until we achieve justice for our nations and people! Thankfully our will to fight has ensured that…

3. Our Cultures Are Strong and Thriving

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Residential schools and Indian Act policies did some real damage to our diverse forms of cultural expression, but our resiliency has made sure that on any given day on Turtle Island you can find our people proudly singing and dancing! And to make things even better…

4.  Our Ceremonies Are Alive and Well

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Thanks to work of many knowledge keepers in our communities, our ceremonies never truly disappeared and today they’re coming back in big way. You know what else is making a big come back?

5. Our Languages

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Language revitalization initiatives and projects are popping up in just about every community across the country. It’s difficult but necessary work and hopefully in our lifetime we can see more fluent communities. I am confident that we can do this because…

6. We’re Incredibly Intelligent

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We really are! So many of our people are doing amazing things in a wide array of academic, scientific and artistic fields. Let’s not forget about our own Indigenous sciences as well, we have a long history of knowing ourselves and the world around us! Never forget that and never forget that in an ever evolving world…

7. We Still Hunt, Fish, Gather and Trap

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Our ancestors are pleased because we’ve never forgotten how to respectfully and responsibly use and appreciate the resources that the earth shares with us. No matter how hard western society tries to pull us away from those practices, we keep on returning to them. It’s in our blood. Our connection with these practices is one of the things that makes us intrinsically Indigenous. Another thing that’s intrinsically indigenous is…

8. Our Incredible Sense of Humour

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Honestly, we wouldn’t have been able to get through a quarter of what we went through had it not been for the incredible medicine and healing power that’s in our uniquely Indigenous sense of humour. Oh and…

9. Our Loving Elders

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They guide us, they teach us and they love us. If not for our elders we may have lost everything, but thankfully their love and care for us guaranteed our continued survival as distinct people in this often difficult and oppressive world. It’s because of our elders that…

10. The Next Generation Continues to Make Us Proud

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The teachings that our elders leave behind resonate and live on through our youth. True nationhood is our young ones dancing, singing, speaking our languages, hunting, fishing, learning, leading, liberating and expressing a deep seeded pride in themselves and their nations. Thankfully this is becoming a reality, a reality that wouldn’t have been possible had it not been for…

11. Our Resilient Ancestors

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Our ancestors we’re the strongest warriors and the most loving people. They resisted colonial oppression not for themselves, but for their children and the generations that would follow. True love of themselves and their nations meant that our ancestors would do and did anything to ensure that we would know who we are today. It also ensured that we can still enjoy…

12. Our Traditional Foods

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Moose, deer, wild rice, berries, salmon, elk, seal, pickerel, whale, lobster, crab, fiddle-heads oh and MAPLE SYRUP! Need I say more? Amazing, healthy and delicious foods are just one of…

13. Our Contributions to The World

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We also invented a wide array of transportation technologies, medicines, hygiene products, sports and little thing now known as American Democracy just to name a few. Our creativity and ingenuity knows no bounds, nothing exemplifies this more then…

14. Our Artists

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Music, fashion, film and visual arts are just some of the artistic avenues that we have used and continue to use to express ourselves. Want the full experience? Put on your headphones, blast some Tribe Called Red, slip on some beaded mocs, throw on your favorite Section 35 hoodie and go check out a Kent Monkman or Christi Belcourt exhibit. But on your way make sure to stop and show appreciation to…

15. Our Lands and Waters

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This is probably the most important thing we should be celebrating. Our lands and waters not only give us life, but they also give us meaning. They define who we are as distinct nations, how our cultures are expressed and give meaning to our languages. Without that we have nothing. So before the day is up, be sure to put down a little tobacco and give thanks to the powers that sustains us.

I have to say, after writing this, I feel a hell of a lot more happy, proud and grateful to be Indigenous. I know things are tough sometimes, well actually all the time, but if we take a moment to look at our lives, our accomplishments and our continued resilience in the face of so much adversity and oppression, we can truly begin to appreciate how brilliant we really are. There’s so much good in our communities, remember that today and most of all enjoy yourself, it’s your day after all!

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Follow the author of Not Your Average Indian on Twitter @shadyhfz and Instagram @shadfez.

10 Reasons Why Senator Lynn Beyak Needed to be Removed From The Senate Standing Committee on Aboriginal Peoples

Lynn BeyakRacism is alive and well in Canada – look no further than Canada’s own Conservative Senator Lynn Beyak. The Senator from Northwestern Ontario became quite the controversy by making some insensitive and disrespectful remarks invalidating the traumatic experiences of residential school survivors. Senator Beyak used to sit on the Senate Standing Committee on Aboriginal Peoples, the committee responsible for advising the Canadian Senate on Indigenous issues. In case you missed it, Senator Beyak was recently removed from the committee by the Senate Conservative caucus. Her removal came amid calls for her resignation from Indigenous leaders, communities and the public alike. If you’re still unsure as to why Senator Beyak was removed, Not Your Average Indian has got you covered with some great arguments behind why the Senator didn’t belong on a government committee that deals with Indigenous issues.

1) She Thinks Dating A Native Guy is All the Education She Needs

Today, on White People Say the Darndest Things: Senator Beyak is quoted as saying “I don’t need any more education. I’ve been involved [with Indigenous peoples] since we double dated when I was 15 with an Aboriginal fellow and his wife,” Palm-to-face. No Lynn, going on a “double date” with an “Aboriginal fellow” does not mean you’re now fully educated on Indigenous issues. How is this even an argument? Somehow Senator Beyak has got it in her head that she is far more enlightened than the thousands of Indigenous students who continue to fill up spaces of higher learning with the intention of gaining more insight into our own history, the effects of colonization and the various pathways to liberation. Even Indigenous people who live Indigenous lives and have uniquely Indigenous experiences, still actively learn about colonization. Not Senator Beyak though – she’s good. A couple dates are all she needs to grasp the many complexities of the Indigenous experience and colonial reality. Is this real life?

2) She Uses Residential Schools as a Platform to Critique Indigenous Financial Competency

Apparently, by discrediting residential schools and glorifying the “good ole days” of assimilation, all Senator Beyak is trying to do is draw attention to what she feels is a need for a financial audit of every single penny coming in and out of our reserves. In this video, Beyak describes how she feels that funds directed to Indigenous communities aren’t being properly delivered to the “people”. Not really sure how she’s connecting that issue to residential schools. Regardless, this straw man critique is nothing new, rhetoric like this is all too common amongst Conservatives who push a damaging narrative of overpaid corrupt chiefs squandering away government funds while the grassroots people suffer. Mi’kmaq political commentator Pam Palmater has critically analyzed this myth, calling it nothing more then “a strategic ploy engaged to do two very important and dangerous things: (a) to deflect attention away from the current crisis in our communities which was created and extended by Canada and (b) to divide our people and communities irrevocably”. We see what you’re up to Senator, luckily you got caught before you could cause any more damage.

3) She’s Convinced She Suffered Along Side Residential School Survivors

Senator Beyak actually said this: “I’ve suffered with them up there. I appreciate their suffering more than they’ll ever know.” My bad Beyak, I actually didn’t know that for the sake of assimilation you were forced to give up your children, your language, your culture, your spirituality, your freedom and your land. I also didn’t know you suffered verbal, physical and sexual abuse at the hands of “God’s servants”. How could we have missed that? Oh right, cause it never happened to you. 

4) She Pushes a “Get Over It” Rhetoric

Let’s make one thing very clear: by attempting to overshadow the grim realities of residential school with the positive experiences of some students, Senator Beyak is clearly trying to persuade Canadians that the schools weren’t that bad. This in turn tempts Canadians to ask the incessant question, “Why can’t you just get over it?” Well, for starters: we’re still being screwed with. Our children are still being taken from us in larger numbers than ever before, we still don’t have full and complete jurisdictional control over our lands and we are still battling Canada in court to restitute our stolen lands. So in reality, how are we supposed to move forward on anything when colonialism is an ongoing process that is still disrupting our lives? More to the point of residential schools, why should we get over it? As Senator Murray Sinclair so elegantly put it, Canadians commemorate WWII and Americans are still hurting over 9/11, so why can’t we remember? It would be nice if people like Senator Beyak could simply take their colonial hypocrisies and bug off.

5) Because We Asked Her To, She Wouldn’t Listen

If you’re on Twitter or Facebook and happen to have plenty of Indigenous friends or even some woke non-Indigenous folks then odds are you’ve noticed we’re pretty pissed off about Senator Beyak’s dangerous, harmful and bullshit remarks. There were four online petitions asking Senator Beyak to resign. Respected Indigenous leaders including Romeo Saganash, Alvin Fiddler, Francis Kavanaugh and Lillian Dyck all called for Beyak’s resignation. Here’s the thing: as a white settler who thinks dating a native guy at was 15 was a significant Indigenous experience, why was Beyak ever allowed to be on this committee and why was she allowed to refuse Indigenous leaders and communities requests to resign? It’s mind boggling. Beyak sat on a committee reserved to advise the Senate on Indigenous issues. Indigenous leaders and communities asked her to resign. Why resist? Oh right, white settler entitlement.

6) She’s a Huge Fan of the White Paper AKA Assimilation

How is it 2017 and we’re still dealing with this shit? Here’s a brief history lesson for those of you who don’t know: in 1969 Prime Minister Pierre Elliot Trudeau and his sidekick Jean Chrétien drafted what is now known as the White Paper. In most basic terms, this paper aimed to do away with the legal nation-to-nation relationships with Indigenous nations and in turn assimilate us into Canadian citizens just like everyone else. We Indigenous people weren’t having any of that, so Indigenous leadership at the time got together and drafted the Red Paper, a counter to the White Paper that basically said “naw, Canada”. Ultimately, Trudeau and his best bud Chrétien realized the White Paper wasn’t gonna fly and dropped it.

Fast forward 48 years, we now have Senator Lynn Beyak, known to us as the Great White white washer of History. Beyak “innocently” argues that the drafters of the White Paper were well intentioned, only aspiring for “us to be Canadians together”: to own private property and make individual decisions with our own cash and to preserve as Beyak says, “our own culture, in our own time, on our own dime.” Sounds legit, what could be wrong with that? Well folks, that’s called assimilation and assimilation forces Indigenous people to forget nationhood, to forget our economic systems, to forget our concepts of collective ownership and to be one with Canada at the expense of our identities and our lands. It also expects us to preserve our culture “in our own time, on our own dime” without taking into account and atoning for everything Canada has done to violently suppress that culture. Obviously, we weren’t interested then and I would argue the majority of us aren’t interested now. We dealt with this shit ages ago. Ain’t nobody got time for that now. Bye Beyak.

7) Alternative Facts and Fake News

Senator Lynn Beyak is following a trend made popular by the Trump administration, that sees Conservatives feel completely emboldened to just make shit up. Beyak completely disregards what Indigenous peoples have been saying for decades and instead chooses to rely on what her so called Indigenous “friends” have told her.  Beyak’s misinformed opinions on the realities of residential school discredit the immense work of the TRC and disrespect the sincere testimonies of the survivors. But wait: there’s more. In response to her critics, Senator Beyak has responded by saying we live in an “era of fake news and exaggeration,” obviously attempting to discredit any negative media coverage of her words as well as the media’s coverage of residential school history and the TRC. Her “fake news” rhetoric is another troubling Trump trend all about discrediting the media when you don’t agree with their coverage. We’re seeing this more and more: white politicians who aren’t getting coverage that makes them feel good about themselves simply label the media as fake. It’s laughable but also really frightening how easily white politicians can disregard the entire media apparatus the second the narrative shifts away from stroking the ego of white society. What’s that called again? White supremacy? White privilege?

8) Her End-All Solution: A National Referendum

What happens when you apparently know everything and refuse to educate yourself further on Indigenous issues? You come up with awful solutions for the problems you think Indigenous people face. Senator Beyak is calling for a national referendum asking every Indigenous person over the age of 12 what exactly it is that they want. Beyak believes this is necessary because current Indigenous organizations that she labels as the “Indian Industry” do not communicate with their grassroots people and are unable to get over their disagreements, ensuring that Indigenous women and children suffer. First off, how can someone who sits on, or should we say sat on, an Indigenous committee demean Indigenous political organizations by referring to them as an industry? Our organizations are just as legitimate as Canadian political organizations, which coincidentally don’t get seem to get along all that well either. Why the double standard? Could it be because Beyak is simply trying to divert attention away from Canada’s own shortcomings? Gonna go with a yes on that one. Second, Beyak’s proposed referendum is useless. For almost 150 years we’ve been telling Canada what we want, from calls for land restitution to justice for missing and murdered Indigenous women. Canada has repeatedly ignored us and has ineffectively altered and fought against our demands. Ultimately, Canada doesn’t give a shit and when it acts like it does, it doesn’t give enough of a shit. Quick question, Senator: if we do have a referendum and the majority of us decide we want our lands back or comparable restitution, what then? Will you support us?

9) She Commends “Christian Aboriginals”

There is nothing wrong with being Christian and Indigenous. To each their own. However, we can’t discuss the conversion of Indigenous peoples to Christianity without including violence and coercion as tools of that conversion. For many Indigenous converts choosing Christianity was not a free decision or one made naturally. Senator Beyak seems to think that the conversion process was for the most part well-intended and should be celebrated today. At one point in Senator Beyak’s horrendous speech she goes on a little tangent commending “Christian Aboriginals” as being “inspiring and uplifting” as their lives are “filled with joy, love and the peace that passes all understanding”. Beyak makes it a point to highlight how these “Christian Aboriginals” are forgiving and how we should seek to forgive those who purposely caused us harm during the residential school era. What Beyak fails to mention is how residential schools were a tool used to coerce Indigenous children and families into adopting the Christian faith. The intention was not generous inclusion in the Christian faith but the break-up of Indigenous families, communities, spiritual and political traditions. Instead, Beyak speaks to residential schools as though she wholeheartedly agrees with the Christianizing project and ultimately the end goal of the schools themselves: the destruction of Indigeneity. Beyak’s tangent makes it seem as though Indigenous people can only be inspiring, uplifting, joyful, loving, peaceful and forgiving if we are Christian. That’s the exact same assimilationist rhetoric that was used during the residential school era and has no business in government today.

10) She Completely Gaslights Residential School Survivors

For those that don’t know, “gaslighting is a form of manipulation that seeks to sow seeds of doubt in a targeted individual or members of a group, hoping to make targets question their own memory, perception, and sanity”. Senator Beyak’s fictitious retelling of history is textbook gaslighting. She puts forward an alternative historical account to residential school survivors’ testimonies in an attempt to make Indigenous communities question our historical reality of intergenerational residential school trauma. Equally frustrating is how Beyak’s use of gaslighting techniques convinces non-Indigenous settlers that they’ve been misinformed on what really went on at residentials schools, inciting widespread denial of Canada’s genocide of Indigenous peoples. Gaslighters often do what they do to seek power. It’s therefore not surprising that Senator Beyak’s narratives works to preserve an alternative narrative of the Residential School system, by trying to preserve the power of white-christian society in Canada by absolving it of any wrongdoing and placing the onus upon Indigenous nations to resolve their “irrational” anger.

Although Senator Beyak has been removed from the Senate Standing Committee on Aboriginal Peoples, she remains a member of the Canadian Senate and continues to have a platform to spout her harmful and misinformed opinions. We must continue to hold politicians like Senator Beyak accountable for what they say and advocate for their removal whenever they cause harm from their positions of power. Remember as well that Beyak is not alone in her sentiments and opinions, individuals like Senator Beyak represent the face of ongoing colonialism, racism and ignorance towards Indigenous peoples in this country. It exists, start dealing with it Canada.

Follow the author of Not Your Average Indian on Twitter @shadyhfz and Instagram @shadfez.

Edited by Sarah Boivin. Find her on Twitter @sarahboiv.

10 Reasons Why Joseph Boyden is a Problem and Should Go Away

Photo Credit: Wikipedia Commons

Photo Credit: Wikipedia Commons

If you’re reading this, you’re probably already well aware of the walking controversy that is Joseph Boyden. At times it might seem strenuous to keep track of all the mess-ups this guy keeps getting himself into. It’s completely understandable, so to help you out, Not Your Average Indian has put together this this concise summary of why he needs to go away so we can all chill and get on with our lives.

1. Let’s All Say it Together: He’s a White Guy

Let’s not waste too much time on this one. Jorge Barrera did an excellent exposé piece for APTN thoroughly analyzing and critiquing Boyden’s claims to Indigenous identity.

Simply put, Boyden has no community. No one claims him, his ancestry is shaky to say the least, he’s transitioned through various identities and he has no ancestral or physical connection to the places he claims.

What makes him Indigenous? Apparently, somewhere down the line, someone in his family was Indigenous, possibly Nipmuc and/or Ojibwe.

Maybe that is the case, but does that make someone Indigenous? If we all go back far enough we may find various ethnic make ups that are contained in our familial genealogies. Does that give us the right to claim to be a part of those communities, without having grown up, lived, experienced or have a direct parental connection to those places?

2. He Takes Up Space

This one’s pretty straightforward. Boyden takes up space that should be focused on Indigenous voices and experiences, specifically the voices of Indigenous women. He speaks to issues that he has not experienced and acts as a representative voice of Indigenous people. He continues to be included on panels related to Indigenous issues, where he continues to receive sympathy from primarily white audiences.

He has said that he “should allow those with deeper roots in the community to speak” and that he has been “too vocal on many Indigenous issues in this country.”

What’s worrying is whether Boyden would have stepped back from this role if he had not been called out. Is he only receding from this position simply because he’s been caught? If so, his intentions are absolutely alarming.

Even more problematic is Boyden’s ability to take up space through the use of his whiteness and pandering to white audiences. His books and stories are written from a position of whiteness and take space, accolade and funds away from legitimate Indigenous authors.

Also this:

3. Accountability? What Accountability?

Anyone who is Indigenous and is connected to an Indigenous community knows that you can’t just run your mouth. At some point, someone from your community is going to say, “Hey, that’s not cool, let’s talk” or, “Step down.”

Having a system of accountability in place is vital for anyone, but critically important for those in leadership positions or positions of representational power. If you step out of line, the community can collectively figure out what remedial actions are necessary or if you should even remain in your vocal position.

Unfortunately, Boyden has no community to hold him to account – to say, “Hey, let’s have a conversation.” Instead, he has critics and supporters, none of whom have communal relational connections to HIM, not to say they don’t come from a place of community.

There is no place-based Indigenous community to hold Boyden to account. He has friends and enemies, all of which he can easily disregard as they do not hold the relational power to ground him in a certain place that informs a certain way of being.

Boyden has described himself as a “nomad” transitioning between his home in New Orleans and wherever else he feels at home. But even nomads have a community that they are accountable to, that tells them when they’re messing up. If your “community” only pats you on the back and never critically engages with you, is that really a community, Boyden? Because that’s not the experience most of us have with our communities.

It’s also important to distinguish between Joseph Boyden, who has no Indigenous community claiming him, and someone forcibly removed from an Indigenous community. The latter can work on finding their way back and those communities can work on finding their lost ones. Boyden can’t do either because that Indigenous community for him does not exist.

Can he be adopted? Yes. Does that matter at the moment? No.

Also, can we start focusing our adoption ceremonies on our own and fellow POC instead of Boyden-types?

4. He Thinks Two-Spirit Means Having a Timeshare

Alright, NativeOUT defines two-spirit like this: “A Two Spirit person is a male-bodied or female-bodied person with a masculine or feminine essence. Two Spirits can cross social gender roles, gender expression, and sexual orientation.”

Furthermore, “Since Europeans arrived in the Americas, they’ve documented encounters with Two Spirit people. In many tribes, Two Spirit people were accepted and respected, but that changed with colonization. The colonizers, through forced assimilation efforts, changed acceptance into homophobia in many indigenous communities.”

Boyden, you are not two-spirited, you have never lived the experiences of two-spirited people, please stop appropriating Indigenous terms you don’t understand for you own desire to fit in.

Go away.

5. He Hears “Blood Memory Voices.” WTF?

Let’s just assume for a second that Boyden isn’t trying to come off as some kind of mystical Indian who channels his stories through his ancestors who in turn validate his existence and actions.

Actually, let’s not. That’s exactly what he’s doing.

For someone with such a shaky ancestral connection to actual Indigenous experiences, it is utterly shocking that he would relate to any concept with the word “blood” and “memory” in it.

Let’s be straightforward here: Boyden gets his stories from the lived experiences of other peoples and their communities.

Mic drop. Go away Boyden.

6. Boyden Appropriates and Benefits from Indigenous Stories and Knowledge

Boyden’s stories aren’t inspired through his “channeling of the ancestors.” He appropriates voices, experiences and stories from the people he communicates with and the communities in which he immerses himself.

Boyden utilizes these stories without due credit or at times the permission of the people or communities he appropriates from. These stories then catapult Boyden into literary fame and fortune, while the communities he extracts from get absolute shit in return.

This is textbook appropriation.

All that’s different about it is Boyden’s claim that it’s all good because he himself is Indigenous.

Naw Boyden, it ain’t all good.

This is an all too familiar story for Indigenous communities. We constantly deal with extractive industries, researchers and artists who wish to use us for their own purposes of fame and glory.

To make matters worse, he uses his appropriated stories to inform and assist a Canadian agenda that seeks to relegate those communities’ current problems into the past. He subverts community and individual stories in a way that they end up doing absolutely nothing to help the communities he so selfishly extracts from.

7. He Straight-up Plagiarized

Investigative journalist Jorge Barrera, recently known for his exposé piece on Joseph Boyden, uncovered some troubling similarities between Boyden’s work and the work of Ojibwe storyteller Ron Geyshick.

By comparing various passges in Boyden’s short story, “Bearwalker” and Geyshick’s short story “Inside My Heart,” Barrera was able to demonstrate how without credit Boyden both paraphrased and plagiarized various passages from Geyshick’s story.

Boyden has attempted to defend himself by saying he “heard” this story from an elder – Xavier Bird – during his many visits to Omushkegowak territory. Bird’s family disputes this story.

8. Boyden is Dangerously Divisive

It has become apparent that the Joseph Boyden debacle has created and intensified debates and divisions within the Indigenous community. Conversations over his identity, role and place in the community have pitted academics, artists, leaders and grassroots everyday people against one another.

Some have chosen to adamantly defend him while others have chosen to simply out him.

Most recently, accalaimed Sto:lo writer Lee Maracle came to Boyden’s defense by asserting that critiques towards his identity are acts of lateral violence. This has opened the door to social media critiques aimed at Maracle herself, demonstrating how Boyden divides and pits us against one another.

He needs to go away.

9. He Openly Defended Someone Accused of Sexual Assault

In 2014, Joseph Boyden edited and released “Kwe: Standing With Our Sisters,” an anthology of works dedicated to standing up against violence towards Indigenous women.

Oddly enough, two years later Boyden would go on to write and circulate a letter defending Steven Galloway, the UBC professor who was fired amid allegations of sexual abuse, harassment and misconduct. The letter specifically called for an independent investigation into the firing of Galloway as his supporters found the process to be “unfair.”

Boyden’s letter was signed and supported by prominent Canadian authors such as Margaret Atwood. The letter demonstrates Boyden’s disregard for the voices of women in making claims of sexual assault. Pretty problematic for a man who claims to stand behind Indigenous women and advocates for an Inquiry into Missing and Murdered Indigenous women.

Boyden could do better by women, specifically Indigenous women, or better yet he could just go away.

10. Canadians Love Him!

By Canadians, it should be made clear I am speaking of non-Indigenous settlers that reside within the country now known as Canada. Canadians have demonstrated through unquestioned support their lust for Boyden and the stories he tells.

They’ve even gone to the extent of vilifying Indigenous voices that are critical of Boyden.

Why? Cause he makes Canada’s history of abuse, genocide and assimilation of Indigenous peoples easy to stomach and relegates it to a distance place or an even more distant past.

The problem here is that it lets Canadians off the hook for the ongoing realities of land dispossession, racism, white supremacy and state/societal violence against Indigenous nations.

Boyden’s books reek of reconciliation, a concept Canadians have consumed to the point of euphoria. Canadians love stories that allow them to relegate their shit to an unfortunate past – anything that makes them think about the present and themselves as somehow oppressive will garner an immediate backlash. Hence why we should continuously remain critical of those who are so well loved by Canadian audiences.

Now that you know what’s wrong with Jospeh Boyden and why he should go away, start focusing your attention and support towards legitimate Indigenous authors! Check out this thread by @KateriAkiwenzie-Damm for some great suggestions:

Follow the author of Not Your Average Indian on Twitter @shadyhfz and Instagram @shadfez.

Edited by Sarah Boivin. Find her on Twitter @sarahboiv.